There are approximately 24 groups of indigenous peoples in Cambodia, such as the Phnong, Kuoy, Tompuon, Charay, Kroeng, Prov, Kavet, Stieng, Kraol, Mil, Kachak, Por, Khaonh, Chorng, Suoy, Thmaun, Lun, Saauch, Ro de, Khe, Raang, Spung, Laeun, Sam re, and other indigenous peoples. They live in a number of provinces, such as Ratanakiri, Mondulkiri, Kratie, Preah Vihear, Kompong Thom, Stung Treng, Udor Meanchey, Kompong Cham, Pursat, Kompong Speu, Koh Kong, Battambang, Preah Sihanouk, Banteay Meanchey, Siem Reap and other areas.
The formal recognition of indigenous peoples (IPs) and their communities is found in the Land Law of 2001. In 2008 the International Labour Organization through the Support to Indigenous Peoples Project in Cambodia (ILO-ITP) in collaboration with the Ministry of Interior (MoI) and the Ministry of Rural Development (MRD) compiled a preliminary – not exhaustive – list of 133 ICs which are potentially eligible for collective land ownership. The IPs express the strong need to protect their lands and resources as a prerequisite for safeguarding their present and future lives.
Therefore this guide is developed in order to address the need of IPs and their ICs within the context of Cambodian legislations, policy, executive regulation, and international legal instruments including ILO Conventions Nos. 169 and 111, on indigenous and tribal peoples and discrimination in employment and occupation respectively; as well as the United Nation Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP), which Cambodia voted in favor of in September, 13th, 2007.
The guide is composed of 03 separated parts covering the threes steps leading to collective land titling in accordance with the Land Law of Cambodia, notably articles 23 to 28.
1. Identification of indigenous peoples and communities (IPs-IC)
2. Registration of their community as a legal entity
3. Collective land titling